All the tracts, except a few along the river, have due north and south lines. John Penn, grandson of the founder, had come to the colony in 1753, and, having acted as president of the Council, was in 1763 commissioned governor in place of Hamilton. All west of the Allegheny and Conewango Creek, with Westmore- land, and all on the east, including therefore Clarion county, with Northum- berland. With them also came James Maguire, Herman Skiles, Mrs. James sent four men-of-war, which he borrowed from the king, under com- mand of Colonel Richard NichoUs, to wrest the New Netherlands from the Hollanders.
One of the objects of their expedition was to explore a route for a wagon road through the Purchase to the head waters of the Allegheny. Washington, in his will, men- tions a bituminous spring on his lands on the Great Kanawha, and Jefferson, in his » Notes on Virginia,» gives an account of a burning spring on the same river. Both of these are interfered with by several narrow strips- running east and west. William Bigler was elected in 185 i, James Pol- lock in 1854, and WilHam F. Packer in 1857. During these administrations the lines of pubHc works undertaken at the expense of the State were com- pleted. The corps was always armed, for danger was ever possible, either from wild beasts or Indians.
The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1765. This was an act to lay a uniform tax on stamped paper in all the colonies, to reahze funds for the common defense. This is a rather obscure vein, one of its rare exposures being upon Middle Run, one-fourth mile above the Fairmount «Coal Company’s opening. So much iron does the bed contain in this vicinity that it may properly be termed an iron ore. The French, having the Allegheny River on which to move, dropped down that river with 1,000 men supplied with artillery, and easily seized the fort then being constructed by the Ohio Company, greatly strengthened it, and called it Fort Du Quesne. All that can be done is to detail the conditions and incidents of the finding of oil, and give the most plausible theories as to the lay of the oil-bearing rock. They ex- posed ten inches to the weather and were held down by cross-pieces, » weight- poles.» A few remembered the thatched roofs of their European ancestors, and built them of long rye straws; these had to be renewed and repaired frequently.